Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy.
Glucose intolerance during pregnancy
Pregnancy hormones can block insulin from doing its job. When this happens, glucose levels may increase in a pregnant woman's blood.
You are at greater risk for gestational diabetes if you:
- Are older than 25 when you are pregnant
- Come from a higher risk ethnic group, such as Hispanic American, African American, Native American, Southeast Asian, or Pacific Islander
- Have a family history of diabetes
- Gave birth to a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds or had a birth defect
- Have high blood pressure
- Have too much amniotic fluid
- Have had an unexplained miscarriage or stillbirth
- Were overweight before your pregnancy
- Gain too much weight during your pregnancy
- Have polycystic ovarian syndrome
Most of the time there are no symptoms. The diagnosis is made during a routine prenatal screening.
When symptoms are present they may include:
Exams and Tests
Gestational diabetes most often starts halfway through the pregnancy. All pregnant women should receive an oral glucose tolerance test between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to look for the condition. Women who have risk factors for gestational diabetes may have this test earlier in the pregnancy.
Once you are diagnosed with gestational diabetes, you can see how well you are doing by testing your glucose level at home. The most common way involves pricking your finger and putting a drop of your blood on a machine that will give you a glucose reading.
The goals of treatment are to keep blood sugar (glucose) levels within normal limits during the pregnancy, and to make sure that the growing baby is healthy.
WATCHING YOUR BABY
Your health care provider should closely check both you and your baby throughout the pregnancy. Fetal monitoring will check the size and health of the fetus.
A nonstress test is a very simple, painless test for you and your baby.
- A machine that hears and displays your baby's heartbeat (electronic fetal monitor) is placed on your abdomen.
- Your health care provider can compare the pattern of your baby's heartbeat to movements and find out whether the baby is doing well.
DIET AND EXERCISE
The best way to improve your diet is by eating a variety of healthy foods. You should learn how to read food labels, and check them when making food decisions. Talk to your health care provider if you are a vegetarian or on another special diet.
In general, when you have gestational diabetes your diet should:
- Be moderate in fat and protein
- Provide your carbohydrates through foods that include fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates (such as bread, cereal, pasta, and rice)
- Be low in foods that contain a lot of sugar, such as soft drinks, fruit juices, and pastries
If managing your diet does not control blood sugar (glucose) levels, you may be prescribed diabetes medicine by mouth or insulin therapy.
Most women who develop gestational diabetes will not need diabetes medicines or insulin, but some will.
There are many risks to having diabetes in pregnancy. Complications are more likely when blood sugar is not well controlled. With good control, most pregnancies have good outcomes.
Pregnant women with gestational diabetes tend to have larger babies at birth. This can increase the chance of problems at the time of delivery, including:
- Birth injury (trauma) because of the baby's large size
- Delivery by C-section
Your baby is more likely to have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) during the first few days of life.
Mothers with gestational diabetes have an increased risk for high blood pressure during pregnancy.
- Your high blood sugar (glucose) levels often go back to normal.
- You should be closely followed for signs of diabetes. You are at risk for developing diabetes within 5 - 10 years after delivery.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you are pregnant and you have symptoms of diabetes.
Getting prenatal care early and having regular checkups helps improve your health and the health of your baby. Having prenatal screening at 24 - 28 weeks of pregnancy will help detect gestational diabetes early.
If you are overweight, getting your weight within the normal body mass index (BMI) range will decrease your risk of gestational diabetes.
Benjamin TD, Pridijan G. Update on gestational diabetes. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics. 2010;27:255-267.
Evert A, Boucher JL, Cypress M, et al. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:3821-3842.
Moyer VA. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:414-20.
Serlin DC, Lash RW. Diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Am Fam Physician. 2009;80:57-62.
Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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